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The process used to manufacture felt

Introduction

Today, most fabrics are either knitted or woven.
Woven fabrics take almost 60% of the total apparel and textile. However, textile goes beyond knitted and woven
fabrics in reality. Everything actually begins from felt. Felt is a special material that needs neither
the sophisticated knitting technology nor the weaving technology.

The history of Felt

Felt is probably the oldest fabric known by man. It came before weaving and knitting. Felt was made very easily by the ancient man because
it did not require weaving or knitting for its production. Some ancient felt
was found in one of the frozen tombs that belonged to the nomadic horsemen that
lived close to the Siberia Tiai Mountains. The felt is dated back to around
700BC. The tribes that were associated with
this felt used it to make saddles, clothing and tents. According to the
Legends, St. Clement who was supposed to become the 4 th bishop of
Rome during the middle ages was the one who discovered the process of making
felt by accident. It is said that he
decided to stuff his sandals using tow (linen fibers or short flax) with the aim
of making them more comfortable. St. Clement later discovered that the pressure
from his feet and the moisture from ground dampness and perspiration matted
these fibers together to produce cloth. When
he became a bishop, he decided to find workers who will help hi develop his felting
operations. He later became the patron saint
for the hat makers. This people extensively utilize felt up to today.

Methods used to manufacture felt

There arebasically two methods used to manufacture felt fabrics:

1. Wet Felting
(also known as traditional felting)

2. Needle- felting (also known as dry felting)

Wet Felting

This process utilizes the inherent nature of animal hairs such as wool. This is because
these fibers have scales that are directional in nature and have knocks in them
too. When exposed to friction, their properties
make them react. This phenomenon is referred to as felting. This tends to work very well with wool fibers because
their scales easily curl and bond to form cloth when aggravated.

The raw materials used

Wool is the main raw material used to produce wet fitted fabrics because it grips and mats
easily. A synthetic fiber is also used
in the process to give the felt some resilience. It is not possible to turn synthetics into
felt using wet felting. However, they can
be felted when they are combined with wool. Typical combinations of fibers
include wool and nylon and wool and polyester.

Cheaper felt (also know as artificial felt) that is produced using the wet method usually has
30% wool combined with artificial fibers. This is the minimum amount of wool need to
hold a given fabric together. Other raw materials that are used in this process
include sulphuric acid, steam and soda ash. Sulphuric acid helps in thickening while soda
ash is used to neutralize the sulphuric acid.

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Durability of your carpet is depending on the padding

When people think about decorating a room, they usually visualize various accessories and small details that will make a room look better. However, when focusing just on furniture people tend to forget that the room will look plain, empty and cold no matter how much furniture and details you put in it if there is no rug on the floor.  That’s why it is also important to carefully select something that will fit with the rest of the decorations and furniture. In my private house I use to own several carpets which were more for the wall then for the floor, several smaller gifts from other countries, mostly handmade. I enjoyed collecting small carpets and usually that was the only thing which I knew about them, as I said, their purpose was mainly for display. Several years back I got married, and my wife and I decided to move to a bigger establishment and spend couple thousand dollars more on the interior, which would combine my hobby with her ideas, so we ended up with five beautiful carpets. To my surprise, we found out that the padding below them plays a big role in the whole furnishing process.


When it comes to choosing bedroom carpets and rubber rug pads for them, the rule which has to be followed is this: the carpet together with the rugged pads must be large enough to outspread further than the sides of the bed at least twelve inches when it comes to twin bed and at least eighteen inches for king-sized bed. As these numbers are the absolute minimum, you can choose to go bigger, but one should know that there is such a thing as a “too big carpet” for the bedroom, meaning the carpet mustn’t cover the whole room, and that there should be sufficient area which isn’t covered with floor carpeting. If you like to inject fun and playfulness into the walls of your home, choose carpets that have unusual forms, colors and patterns.
If you would like to have your carpet as long as you can, then besides inesting in to a rubber rug pad, it would also be smart to check out from what the carpet is made of. Wool is considered to be the most durable material and most quality rugs and carpets are made from this natural fiber. In Tibet and New Zealand sheep tend to produce more lanolin, which is why most high quality woolen yarns come from those areas. Silk is often the material used to mix the design of a quality rug, because this fabric tends to reflect sunrays thus giving it a shimmering look. Cotton, grass fibers and synthetic fibers are also used to endure the lifespan of the carpet and most customers buy them for high traffic rooms, like hallways or living rooms.